Sustainable Development Goals - 17 Goals to Transform our World

Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

Indicator 7.1.2: Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology

Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology

This table provides metadata for the actual indicator available from US statistics closest to the corresponding global SDG indicator. Please note that even when the global SDG indicator is fully available from US statistics, this table should be consulted for information on national methodology and other US-specific metadata information.

Actual indicator available
Actual indicator available - description
Date of national source publication
Method of computation The indicator is calculated as the number of people using clean fuels and technologies for cooking, heating and lighting divided by total population reporting that any cooking, heating or lighting, expressed as percentage. Method of computation The indicator is modelled with household survey data compiled by WHO. The information on cooking fuel use and cooking practices comes from about 800 nationally representative survey and censuses. Survey sources include Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Living Standards Measurement Surveys (LSMS), Multi-Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), the World Health Survey (WHS), and other nationally developed and implemented surveys. Estimates of primary cooking energy for the total, urban and rural population for a given year are obtained separately using a multilevel model. The model only accounts for regions, countries and time as a spline function, and estimates are restricted to values ranging from zero to one. More details on the model are published elsewhere (Bonjour et al, 2013). Estimates for countries with no available surveys were obtained as follows: When survey data is available for a country, the regional populationweighted mean is used to derive aggregate estimates at a regional or global level, however no country point estimate is given for that country is reported Countries classified as high-income with a Gross National Income (GNI) of more than US$ 12,746.- per capita are assumed to have made a complete transition to using clean fuels and technologies as the primary domestic energy source for cooking and the primary reliance on polluting (unclean) fuels and technologies use is reported to be less than 5% and assumed as zero for regional and global estimates. For estimating the fraction of the population relying on clean fuels and technologies for heating and lighting, the same methodology using survey data to derive country estimates for a particular year will be used using the same above mentioned assumptions.
Scheduled update by national source
U.S. method of computation
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Date metadata updated
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Scheduled update by SDG team

This table provides information on metadata for SDG indicators as defined by the UN Statistical Commission. Complete global metadata is provided by the UN Statistics Division.

Indicator name Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology
Target name By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services.
Global indicator description The percentage of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology at the household level. From non-solid fuels to clean fuels Current global data collection focuses on the primary fuel used for cooking, categorized as solid or non-solid fuels, where solid fuels are considered polluting and non-modern, while non-solid fuels are considered clean. This single measure captures a good part of the lack of access to clean cooking fuels, but fails to collect data on type of device or technology is used for cooking, and also fails to capture other polluting forms of energy use in the home such as those used for lighting and heating. New evidence-based normative guidance from the WHO ( i.e. WHO Guidelines for indoor air quality guidelines: household fuel combustion), highlights the importance of addressing both fuel and the technology for adequately protecting public health. These guidelines provide technical recommendations in the form of emissions targets for as to what fuels and technology (stove, lamp, and so on) combinations in the home are clean. These guidelines also recommend against the use of unprocessed coal and discourage the use kerosene (a non-solid but highly polluting fuel) in the home. They also recommend that all major household energy end uses (e.g. cooking, space heating, lighting) use efficient fuels and technology combinations to ensure health benefits. For this reason, the technical recommendations in the WHO guidelines, access to modern cooking solution in the home will be defined as "access to clean fuels and technologies" rather than "access to non-solid fuels." This shift will help ensure that health and other "nexus" benefits are better counted, and thus realized. Definition Percent of population with primary reliance on clean* fuels and technologies at the household level. *"Clean" is defined by the emission rate targets and specific fuel recommendations (i.e. against unprocessed coal and kerosene) included in the normative guidance WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: household fuel combustion.
UN designated tier 1
UN custodial agency WHO (Partnering Agencies: UN Energy)
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Agency Staff Name
Agency Survey Dataset
Link to data source